Photography Tips & Tricks

Camera Settings

What settings did you use?

One of the questions I love seeing on my images is “what settings did you use?”. It’s a great reminder that more and more people are wanting to learn photography and it’s also a little humbling to be asked how my images came to be. I’ve long made an effort of ensuring the settings (also referred to as EXIF details or metadata) for my images are available and, in places like Instagram where EXIF details aren’t supported I’ve tried to make them available as an Instagram Story, Facebook caption and so on. 

This is a tough practice though because sharing settings does challenge the fundamentals of good photographic learning. In essence, knowing the camera settings used to capture one’s image won’t advance your own ability as a photographer. 

But why not?

Because taking better photos all starts with learning exposure and there is a big disconnect between settings and exposure control. 

Intrigued? Good because that’s why I’ve written this blog. My objective here is to help explain how to learn photography. Of course, this will need to be condensed and there’s a lot I’ll need to skim over or miss, but if you’re interested in taking more control of your camera this might be a good starter. 

It’s all about the light

I know I sound repetitive, but it really is just all about the light. The light around us at any given moment in time is what we can refer to as ambient light and, unless we’re introducing flashes or artificial lighting, that ambient light is what our cameras are capturing in every photo we take. 


So our cameras are capturing that ambient light. Got it. But how? 

They’re doing so via an exposure. When set to auto mode, our cameras will automatically expose for the ambient light. When in manual, we expose for the ambient light. Either way, there’s an exposure. 

By controlling our exposure we’re controlling how our camera’s will expose for the ambient light and thus how our photo will ultimately look. 

  • A balanced exposure is generally equal to how the ambient light looks to the naked eye.
  • An under exposed photo is darker than the ambient light as seen to the naked eye.
  • An over exposed photo is brighter than the ambient light as seen to the naked eye.  

Just stop it

In photography exposure is measured in stops. A balanced exposure minus 2 stops is going to produce an under exposed photo. A balanced exposure plus 2 stops is going to produce an over exposed photo. 

Exposure stops are invariable and equivalent across all three exposure tools so understanding them is super important but we’ll come back to this later.

Here’s a common scene many of us would see every day with examples spanning over 8 exposure stops. 

Under and over exposed.png

Exposure tools

As photographers we have three tools at our disposal to control exposure. 

  • Shutter
  • Aperture
  • ISO

Each one can be used independently of the other to control exposure and each one has it’s own advantages and drawbacks. Learning these three tools forms the bottom line of controlling exposure.

How a camera works

I know, I know. This sounds unnecessary but I promise I’m not climbing up onto my geek-box for no reason. An elementary understanding of how a camera functions will totally help in understanding how and why each of the three exposure tools behave the way they do. We’ll keep it super light. 


How a camera works.png
  1. The light from the scene enters the front of the lens and travels through to the camera. 
  2. The mirror reflects the light upwards.
  3. Behind the mirror is a shutter.
  4. Behind the shutter is a digital sensor. Before the days of digital photography, this would have been the film.
  5. The reflected view (from the mirror) is bounced around inside something called a pentaprism so as it is the right way up. It’s then directed out through the view finder. 

Told ya we'd keep it light :)

Shutter speed

Shutter speed is a very functional notion. In the moment we take a photo the mirror flips upwards and the shutter opens giving the light a direct path to the digital sensor. Shutter speed simply refers to the amount of time in which the mirror is raised and the shutter is open. 

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Most of the time when we take a photo, we’re doing so within a fraction of a second. For example; a shutter speed setting of 1,100th sec literally means (the mirror is raised and) the shutter is open for.. you guessed it, 1/100th of a second.   

Choosing a slower shutter speed setting gives the light more time to hit the digital sensor and produces a brighter image. Choosing a faster shutter speed setting gives the light less time to hit the digital sensor and produces a darker image. Adjusting the shutter speed is therefore a rather straight forward way to control exposure.

Measuring shutter speed

Remember my point above about exposure stops? Applying exposure stops to shutter speed control is relatively straight forward.

Every time we double the shutter speed we increase the exposure by 1 stop. Every time we halve the shutter speed we decrease the exposure by 1 stop. Double or halve. Simple. 

Shutter speed examples.png

Motion blur

Adjusting the shutter speed not only impacts exposure but also the way in which an image is captured. Any object moving faster than the cameras shutter speed will blur.

This can be used for some fun creative effects such as light trails, but it can also ruin a photo if people are blurred. 

Motion Blur.png


Our next exposure tool is aperture. 

Aperture refers to the size of the hole at the end of the lens in which the light travels through. A great analogy I like to use when explaining the relationship between aperture and light is to think of light as water and aperture as a hole in a container. Let’s use a coke bottle and a bucket in this case. 

As we now know, the light only has a precise amount of time to make it through the lens and onto the digital sensor (defined by our shutter speed). Aperture controls the volume of light making it into the lens. 

Back to our water analogy and let’s pour the same amount of water into a coke bottle and a bucket over a period of say… 1/30th of a second.

Obviously, the larger hole at the end of the bucket will allow more water to make it through compared with the smaller hole at the end of the coke bottle. 

bucket and bottle example.png

That, is aperture. The bigger the hole at the end of the lens, the brighter the exposure. 

Now for the catch. The smaller the aperture number, the bigger the hole. That’s not a typo and it may seem illogical but it’s a gotcha that causes a lot of confusion so lock that one away.

Unlike doubling or halving shutter speed, controlling exposure stops with aperture is a little more mystifying but with a little practice it’ll become easy to remember.  

*Here’s a helpful tip. Most camera’s adjust exposure in 1/3rd stops so three clicks of the dial = 1 full stop *

Aperture examples.png

Depth of field

Another important effects of aperture control is something known as depth of field which is the amount of your photo which is in focus from front to back. 

There’s a lot for us to talk about when we discuss depth of field and now isn’t the time. All we’ll touch on now is to say, a big aperture (low f number) gives a blurry background and a small aperture (high f number) gives a deep focus.

This is important for landscape photographers who need their foreground and background to be in focus.


The final exposure tool to cover is ISO. ISO is a measurement of how sensitive the digital sensor is to light. 

This one is super simple. The lower the iso number, the darker the exposure and the higher the ISO number the brighter the exposure. Just like shutter speed, doubling or halving your ISO will produce a change of +/- 1 exposure stop.

ISO examples.png

Image quality

Increasing the sensitivity of the digital sensor is a super simple way to improve low light shots without having to worry about motion blur from a long shutter speed and when your aperture is as wide as it can be. There is a big problem though. The higher the ISO number, the lower your image quality (think - grainy / noisy images).

This is an important factor to remember and a good reason why you should always aim to keep your ISO as low as possible. 

A stop is a stop

Bringing shutter speed, aperture and ISO together all amount to a common exposure. What I mean about that is 1 extra exposure stop in shutter speed is identical to 1 extra exposure stop in aperture or iso. 

Settings Example.png

Making choices

Taking control of our camera's in manual mode requires us to make a series of choices. What’s the best aperture to keep your whole scene in focus or out of focus? Do you want to freeze the subject or blur it? Do you want to intentionally over expose it or under expose it?

And this brings us back to my opening sentiments regarding camera settings. The settings used to capture an image were specific to the ambient light in that exact moment in time, as well as a range of factors and variables. Spending time and practice to make these informed exposure choices will empower you to take control of your camera and your photography in any circumstance, every time. 

So that’s it for now. I know this was a long blog and a lot was still left out but I hope it’s helped. I’ll continue to post my camera settings as often as I can and please keep the questions coming. 

Getting started with photography

I’m frequently contacted by people with an early interest in photography and curious about how to start, what camera to buy and what to know.

Like any craft or hobby, there is no single right way to get started with photography, but hopefully this blog might help to answer some easy questions and maybe even give a few tips to any newbies out there wanting to give it a go. 

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First thing’s first, let’s start with the why. Photographic genres are endless, and each comes with its own quirks and tricks but even before we talk about those, we need to get down to what it is that inspires you.

One of the greatest things about photography is that it can be added to what we already love to do; it’s a hobby that plays nice with our other hobbies. Do you love to travel? Do you love children? Nature, sports, cooking? Landscape, portrait, macro, sports and still life photography all have their own areas to focus on and hone your skills at. Having an idea of what inspires you will make those early days of practice all the more fun and rewarding.

So, have a think about what you like, what you would like to take photos of and start looking for some inspiration. 

Go and get a camera

This is the fun part. We can’t really get into photography without a camera but if you’re new to photography getting a ‘good camera’ can be a daunting endeavour. So, here’s a few pointers. 

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Think ahead

Let’s not beat around the bush here, photography is no cheap sport and as you improve so too will your need for more or better accessories.

But why is that relevant now? Because when you buy a brand of camera that’s the same brand you’ll need to start investing in accessories for, so my recommendation would be to stick with one of the bigger and more established camera manufacturers and one that can cover your needs as you develop.

Budget and goals

Good cameras cost a lot of money and so too do their accessories, so it’s important to be clear about what your goals are for the new camera. Chances are, if you’re just starting out, you don’t need the best quality full frame sensor on the market, the highest speed shutter sync, fastest frame rate or the most extreme ISO quality. 

What you need is a camera with interchangeable lenses and manual control. That’s it. There’s a lot to learn and it’s all good fun but we need to walk before we can run, and mastering photography all starts with mastering light, exposure and composition.

An entry level dSLR or mirrorless camera will give you the chance to learn the various settings without being overwhelmed. Speaking of dSLR’s and mirrorless cameras… 


What’s a good camera?

Up until recently, deciding to buy a ‘good camera’ meant a dSLR but there’s now a second option; mirrorless. As you research cameras you’ll probably come across these and without a little understanding as to what they are you may rule out a potentially great option without knowing it. Just like with dSLR’s, mirrorless cameras feature a lens mount which means you can interchange lenses, but as the name might suggest, they forgo the mirror system from dSLR’s.

See, dSLR’s use a mirror to relay an optical reflection of the scene through the lens, up through a glass pentaprism and into an optical viewfinder. Abandoning this complex mirror and glass system helps reduce size and weight. It seems like an obvious win, but pros have taken some warming up to the mirrorless system. With no mirror, they rely on an electronic viewfinder or, indeed, the back-LCD panel.

There have also been some concerns over the extent of compatible lenses available for these new systems but that’s quickly changing as well, so it’s really a choice around size and weight or a traditional glass viewfinder.

Now to the features

At the absolute minimum, you must buy a camera that has full manual control, there is simply no other way to learn about exposure and light. If you’re at all interested in any type of still life, portrait or macro photography you will also need a camera that has a hot shoe for mounting a flash.

Low Light Performance

A camera's low light performance is delivered via it's ISO. High ISO capability is a nice to have but unless you’re serious about sports, photojournalism, events or astro photography you won’t need to push your ISO too high. Even most entry level camera’s today have better ISO performance than pro-level models of only a few years ago. 

LOW LIGHT TODAY.  In 2006 Nikon shook things up with the launch of the D200. This D200’s ISO performance was so impressive it was heralded as practically being able to see in the dark. The D200 was an enthusiast to semi pro level APS-C camera. It’s native ISO range was 100 – 1,600. Today’s entry level Nikon D3400 has an ISO range of 100 – 25,600!!!

LOW LIGHT TODAY. In 2006 Nikon shook things up with the launch of the D200. This D200’s ISO performance was so impressive it was heralded as practically being able to see in the dark. The D200 was an enthusiast to semi pro level APS-C camera. It’s native ISO range was 100 – 1,600. Today’s entry level Nikon D3400 has an ISO range of 100 – 25,600!!!


The camera’s focusing engine will be the next major point of differentiation you’ll see between models and prices. Moving into a better camera will bring with it the introduction of Automatic Focus Points (AF Points). Higher end cameras will have more AF Points spread out across the frame to help it lock focus on moving subjects. This is a common point of differentiation between models and their respective price differences. For example, Nikon’s entry level D3400 uses 11 focus points while the higher D5600 uses 39 focus points. Nikon’s Top of the line professional D5 uses 153 focus points (and also costs as much as a small car).

Are focus points important? Absolutely. Should you start with a higher end camera because of them? No. Learning to focus and track subjects as they move takes time and is more important. 

Larger sensors

Better camera’s usually have larger sensors. The larger the sensor the better the image quality. If you see a camera with a ‘full frame’ sensor that means the sensor is 35mm – the same size as a standard 35mm film. Full Frame sensors are usually found in professional level cameras and come with a price tag to match. Getting started with a micro 4/3rds or APS-C size sensor makes perfect sense and will still be a huge step up from your point and shoot or phone camera.


I’m going to skip over this because it just doesn’t matter. 20megapixels is pretty common today and more than enough. Just remember – higher resolution does not equal better image quality. 


This is actually a really important point and one that shouldn’t be overlooked. As a rule, I’ve never liked Canon, that’s not because they don’t make a good camera, but rather because I’ve never liked their ergonomics.

Before buying a camera it’s important to go into a store, hold it and use it. Does it feel right in your hands, can you access the controls easily and do the menus seem logical to you?

These are important points and could make all the difference. For example, on a head to head comparison, the Nikon D3400 does edge out the Canon 1300D but the 1300D is still a terrific camera so don’t assume the D3400 is the right camera for you until you’ve held and tested the 1300D. This is even more important now with the smaller and lighter mirrorless options. Specifications and features don’t mean a lot when the camera doesn’t feel natural to use. 

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It might come as a surprise that lenses are of equal importance to the camera itself. We’ll research and agonise over what camera to buy and give little thought to lenses, but they play a major role in photography. Most entry level camera bodies come with what will be called a ‘kit lens’ and these are usually fine to start with.

It’s common to find a single or twin lens kit and the choice on which one to get really comes down to the style of photography you want to learn and practice with. Nikon’s entry level D3400 comes with a 18-55mm single lens kit or a 18-55mm + 70-300mm twin lens kit. The 70-300mm is a long tele-zoom. 

The 50mm prime and why you need one

If you were hoping for a few tips in this blog than listen up.

Lenses come in two flavours, zoom lenses and prime lenses. A prime lens is simply just a fixed focal length, ie, it can’t zoom. Regardless of what style photography you would like to learn I strongly recommend buying a 50mm f1.4 or f1.8 prime lens. Remember when I said earlier that photography is about learning light, exposure and composition? A 50mm prime lens is the single best accessory to help you practice and learn all three.

Light and exposure

Learning to control light and exposure requires an understanding of three variables, shutter speed, aperture and iso. Most kit lenses will have what is called a variable aperture, meaning the aperture may start around, say, f3.5 and narrow down to around f5.6 as you zoom.

This helps to keep the cost of the lens down, but it also makes it terribly tricky to learn your exposure controls when your maximum aperture range is variable and changing without your input. A 50mm f1.8 prime will allow you to fix your aperture at f1.8 and observe the difference in exposure as you adjust the shutter speed and ISO.

All camera brands will have native 50mm f1.4 and f1.8 prime lenses but don't forget 3rd party options such as Tamron and Sigma.

All camera brands will have native 50mm f1.4 and f1.8 prime lenses but don't forget 3rd party options such as Tamron and Sigma.


Learning to compose for shots is a skill that will come to some naturally and to others with a little practice, but a zoom lens gives you a little too much freedom to be lazy as you’re learning.

A fixed 50mm will force you to physically move as you compose for the scene, overtime this will become habit.



Shallow D.O.F

Here’s the cool part. You know those photos where the subject is in focus and the background is all blurred out? That is called ‘depth of field’ (D.O.F) and a shallower D.O.F will give you a more blurry background. D.O.F is a product of three variables, aperture, focal length and distance. The wider your aperture (f1.8 is wide, f11 is narrow) the shallower your depth of field.

The longer your focal length (100mm is long, 16mm is wide) the shallower your depth of field. So, you guessed it. That 50mm f1.8 prime – a perfect lens for shallow depth of field shots. They’re fun, they’ll get you hooked but they’ll also really help teach you about exposure and light as you’ll be forced to learn how to accommodate for a wider aperture with your shutter speed and ISO. 

Other accessories

The accessory list for photography is longer than most car brochures and makeup catalogues, but there are three accessories worth touching on at this point. Tripods, Flashes and bags.

If you want to try any sort of long exposure or night photography, you’ll need a tripod. The same can be said for landscape photography. Shooting a sunrise or sunset handheld isn’t going to give you the best results. I’ll write more on this in a later blog.

Flash photography is incredibly fun and used by many styles of photography including portraits, events and still life (still life – that’s you foodies). So, will you need one? Yes, but you’ll have a bit to learn before you can make sense of how to correctly use a flash and it’ll probably just complicate matters to begin with, so maybe hold off for now unless you can wheel and deal a package price for buying it upfront with your new camera.

As for bags, well, they’re rather important. They say the best camera is the one you’ve got on you, and unless you have it packed up and ready to go, you’re likely going to find yourself leaving it at home. You won’t need much to begin with but as your range of equipment grows so too will your collection of bags (I’m not afraid to admit I have a minor bag problem). Landscape photographers in particular need good bags and there are a lot of options to choose from. Say goodbye to carry-on luggage. 

Just shoot

Ok, so we’ve identified what inspires us. We’ve made the commitment and purchased our camera, now what? Well it may seem obvious, but the next step is to just get out and shoot. A lot. Every time you learn a new skill, practice it. If you read a tip on line, practice it.

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Start paying attention to where light is coming from and how different angles create different shadows and how different types of light change your photos. And most importantly, make mistakes. Get to know what it is that you don’t like about your photos and what you could change to fix them. Every great photo I’ve taken has 100 failed attempts behind it.

That’s about it for now. Photography is a wonderful hobby and it really is never ending. I’ve been shooting passionately now for almost 15 years and I’m still learning all the time. The challenge becomes addictive and I am sincerely grateful that I fell in love with photography when I did. It’s cost me a lot of money and a lot of time, but I love it and I’m sure you will too.

Till next time. 

Optimising images for social media

Hey everyone, sorry for the break between blog-drinks. It’s been a busy few weeks.

I’ve had a lot of people reach out to ask when the next blog was coming and to share their ideas for topics they would like me to write about. So, thank-you for your patience. All of the ideas and requests on topics have been most welcome and I’ll certainly do my best to cover off as many of them as possible over time. 

Okay, here we go. One of the recurring themes in the questions I’m asked is how I optimise my images for social media. That is certainly reasonable, as it’s a problem I’ve broken a light sweat over from time to time, so that’s the topic I’ll try and focus on in this piece. 

Instagram Elephant.jpg

First things first though, let’s say hi to the elephant in the room - the Instagram crop which doesn’t matter, yet somehow really matters a lot.

When I joined IG a few years ago, it hurled a big pineapple in my entire workflow. Why? Because of the stupid low res 1:1. 

Then in July ’15, Zuckerberg gave us a warm “we’re listening to you” with an upgrade to the pitiful 640pixel square to a heartier 1080.

Instagram Pineapple.jpg

A few weeks later, it was announced that IG would support non-square uploads. A peak into the fine-print affirmed we could now post landscape images in a 1.91 to 1 ratio which was wonderful. I assume this was an exercise towards cross platform compatibility for FB and IG ads because 1.91:1 is exactly the same as a Facebook link preview image but, it solved my issue. 

The truth I’ve learnt though is posting a landscape image on IG is of little value. All images will be cropped to a square on your grid so only the 1:1 mid-section of your beautifully wide shot will be shown, which generally looks a bit naf.

What’s more, they don’t present well on vertical mobile devices which is exactly what IG is designed for. That’s not a big deal to some but it discourages others from re-sharing your images which will really curb the breadth of your exposure, if that matters to you, then this matters to you. Sorry. 

Who, what, where

As with any process, we can’t decide the best steps to take unless we first nail what it is we want to achieve.

Who are the audience, what is the format, where will it be seen? An image should be finished very differently for presentation on a wall at an exhibition than it should for Facebook or Instagram.

My process is exclusively geared towards online viewers and I’ll keep a full resolution tiff file saved in the event I need to re-visit the image for printing purposes later.

My primary online audience is Instagram and my secondary audience is Facebook and Flickr. All the others fall a distant third. My images are optimised for these audiences to view on their mobile devices but also on a larger desktop screen, so I need a balance between file size and resolution.

In the field

As recently as a few years ago I was shooting almost, exclusively, panoramic. I had a camera and lens set-up dedicated to this style of shooting and my images were all finished at at-least a 3:1 if not wider.

I loved that look, and I still do, but it was more work. Today I shoot single frames. I find myself choosing a vertical frame more often. This has been a hard transition, as the purist landscaper in me just doesn’t see the same aesthetic character in a tall and thin image as I do in a more grandiose wide scene, but I’m mindful of how my images are most commonly presented and what’s most satisfying for the viewer. 


In post

Once I’ve edited my RAW file (I just use Adobe Camera Raw) I’ll open it in Photoshop. By this point, I have an idea of what proportion the end result will be. For example, 3:2, 5:4, 1:1 and if it’ll be vertical or landscape. In the rare instance where I’ve taken multiple frames for a panoramic, I’ll place the stitched image on a blank canvas and literally skew and scale parts of it to fit the canvas using the transform tools in photoshop (Edit > Transform > Scale / Skew / Warp / Perspective shift).

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Once I’ve finished editing the image to my liking, I’ll flatten all of the layers and save it as a high res file (there’s a bit to this so make sure you see my dedicated section on Saving below). Now that I have a high res version of the file safely tucked away it’s time to go to town on it.

If the image is a portrait, I’ll crop it to a 5:4 vertical – that’s the max vertical proportion I’ll use for Instagram, resize and save as low res. Note, I would happily share a 3:2 jpeg online and a second 5:4 version of it for Instagram only. If the image is a landscape I'll save it in its native aspect ratio and then create a second IG-specific 1:1 version of it.

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Getting a 5:4 or 3:2 down to a 1:1 can be a calamitous and heartbreaking ordeal, slicing away mountain peaks hurts. Where possible I’ll try to scale in sections of the image and that works but I STRESS caution - an overly shrunken image catches the eye like 80’s workout clothing, it's function and, for a fleeting moment it’s a good idea but everyone will notice right away, and no-one will think it’s cool.

I recommend only doing this to selected portions of the image without any identifiable shape to them. Sky, water etc. 


This isn’t the place or time for an in-depth analysis on file formats and compression but understanding the basics of how to properly save an image is important. Photoshop (and most other editing applications) offer an abundance of file formats and options so here’s what I know.

Image quality is a product of two variables; resolution and compression, both of which can be cryptic business.

The easiest convention for resolution is the one that’s used to describe the width x height in pixels.

Compression is a little more complex and used to manage the file size of an image. If you’ve heard the terms lossy and lossless in a conversation than chances are you were inadvertently talking compression (nerd alert). Compressing an image reduces file size which is great for getting a big file to a small enough size for uploading online.

Lossy and lossless compression are characterisations of explicating data from an image file. Saving an image using lossy compression discards information from the image which drastically reduces the file size. The problem comes when we need to re-save the file. Each time a lossy file is re-saved it’s recompressing, compression on compression, and each time, the quality of the image is reduced.

Lossless compression is akin to vacuum sealing a suitcase. Sucking out the air reduces the size for storage, but the air can be let back when it’s unpacked, and everything returns to normal.

Compression copy.jpg

The reason I’m talking about this is because I do both. I’ll save a full resolution version of my image as a TIFF (Lossless). I’ll then reduce the image size (File > Image Size) to 1080 pixels on the longest side and re-save it as a JPEG (Lossy). If I need to create a second version of the image for Instagram (5:4 or 1:1) I’ll revert to the original image size, crop and scale as necessary then re-size to 1080 again and save as a second JPEG. All files will be saved at 300dpi using an RGB colour mode. 

I will never re-open either jpeg and re-save it. Any changes or copies I need to make will be done from the TIFF and then saved as another JPEG from it. 

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The finishing touches.


My TIFFS are saved on two separate hard-drives (usually) and backed up to the cloud. My JPEGS are saved on one hard drive.

I have two dedicated folders on my phone, IMAGE UPLOADS and IMAGE UPLOADS – IG. I’ll airdrop both JPEGS from my laptop to my phone (Airdrop = Apple, just, do it) and store them accordingly.

I’ll upload my jpegs to Facebook and Flickr separately, I don’t automate this, then upload to IG. I generate half my hashtags using an app called Focalmark and then take a punt on the other half. 

For anyone who has seen my IG stories, I use an app called LumaFusion which is an iOS video editing app and super capable. I’ve made a standard project template in it for IG stories and set to 1080 x 1920 resolution (the standard IG story size) at 30fps and saved as an MPEG4. I’ll then open the saved video file in a second app called HypeType to add the animated text, re-save and upload.