Optimising images for social media

Hey everyone, sorry for the break between blog-drinks. It’s been a busy few weeks.

I’ve had a lot of people reach out to ask when the next blog was coming and to share their ideas for topics they would like me to write about. So, thank-you for your patience. All of the ideas and requests on topics have been most welcome and I’ll certainly do my best to cover off as many of them as possible over time. 

Okay, here we go. One of the recurring themes in the questions I’m asked is how I optimise my images for social media. That is certainly reasonable, as it’s a problem I’ve broken a light sweat over from time to time, so that’s the topic I’ll try and focus on in this piece. 

Instagram Elephant.jpg

First things first though, let’s say hi to the elephant in the room - the Instagram crop which doesn’t matter, yet somehow really matters a lot.

When I joined IG a few years ago, it hurled a big pineapple in my entire workflow. Why? Because of the stupid low res 1:1. 

Then in July ’15, Zuckerberg gave us a warm “we’re listening to you” with an upgrade to the pitiful 640pixel square to a heartier 1080.

Instagram Pineapple.jpg

A few weeks later, it was announced that IG would support non-square uploads. A peak into the fine-print affirmed we could now post landscape images in a 1.91 to 1 ratio which was wonderful. I assume this was an exercise towards cross platform compatibility for FB and IG ads because 1.91:1 is exactly the same as a Facebook link preview image but, it solved my issue. 

The truth I’ve learnt though is posting a landscape image on IG is of little value. All images will be cropped to a square on your grid so only the 1:1 mid-section of your beautifully wide shot will be shown, which generally looks a bit naf.

What’s more, they don’t present well on vertical mobile devices which is exactly what IG is designed for. That’s not a big deal to some but it discourages others from re-sharing your images which will really curb the breadth of your exposure, if that matters to you, then this matters to you. Sorry. 

Who, what, where

As with any process, we can’t decide the best steps to take unless we first nail what it is we want to achieve.

Who are the audience, what is the format, where will it be seen? An image should be finished very differently for presentation on a wall at an exhibition than it should for Facebook or Instagram.

My process is exclusively geared towards online viewers and I’ll keep a full resolution tiff file saved in the event I need to re-visit the image for printing purposes later.

My primary online audience is Instagram and my secondary audience is Facebook and Flickr. All the others fall a distant third. My images are optimised for these audiences to view on their mobile devices but also on a larger desktop screen, so I need a balance between file size and resolution.

In the field

As recently as a few years ago I was shooting almost, exclusively, panoramic. I had a camera and lens set-up dedicated to this style of shooting and my images were all finished at at-least a 3:1 if not wider.

I loved that look, and I still do, but it was more work. Today I shoot single frames. I find myself choosing a vertical frame more often. This has been a hard transition, as the purist landscaper in me just doesn’t see the same aesthetic character in a tall and thin image as I do in a more grandiose wide scene, but I’m mindful of how my images are most commonly presented and what’s most satisfying for the viewer. 

33562190904_71b5ccdeba_z.jpg

In post

Once I’ve edited my RAW file (I just use Adobe Camera Raw) I’ll open it in Photoshop. By this point, I have an idea of what proportion the end result will be. For example, 3:2, 5:4, 1:1 and if it’ll be vertical or landscape. In the rare instance where I’ve taken multiple frames for a panoramic, I’ll place the stitched image on a blank canvas and literally skew and scale parts of it to fit the canvas using the transform tools in photoshop (Edit > Transform > Scale / Skew / Warp / Perspective shift).

Screen Shot 2018-04-06 at 8.38.51 pm.png

Once I’ve finished editing the image to my liking, I’ll flatten all of the layers and save it as a high res file (there’s a bit to this so make sure you see my dedicated section on Saving below). Now that I have a high res version of the file safely tucked away it’s time to go to town on it.

If the image is a portrait, I’ll crop it to a 5:4 vertical – that’s the max vertical proportion I’ll use for Instagram, resize and save as low res. Note, I would happily share a 3:2 jpeg online and a second 5:4 version of it for Instagram only. If the image is a landscape I'll save it in its native aspect ratio and then create a second IG-specific 1:1 version of it.

80s workout clothing.jpg

Getting a 5:4 or 3:2 down to a 1:1 can be a calamitous and heartbreaking ordeal, slicing away mountain peaks hurts. Where possible I’ll try to scale in sections of the image and that works but I STRESS caution - an overly shrunken image catches the eye like 80’s workout clothing, it's function and, for a fleeting moment it’s a good idea but everyone will notice right away, and no-one will think it’s cool.

I recommend only doing this to selected portions of the image without any identifiable shape to them. Sky, water etc. 

Saving

This isn’t the place or time for an in-depth analysis on file formats and compression but understanding the basics of how to properly save an image is important. Photoshop (and most other editing applications) offer an abundance of file formats and options so here’s what I know.

Image quality is a product of two variables; resolution and compression, both of which can be cryptic business.

The easiest convention for resolution is the one that’s used to describe the width x height in pixels.

Compression is a little more complex and used to manage the file size of an image. If you’ve heard the terms lossy and lossless in a conversation than chances are you were inadvertently talking compression (nerd alert). Compressing an image reduces file size which is great for getting a big file to a small enough size for uploading online.

Lossy and lossless compression are characterisations of explicating data from an image file. Saving an image using lossy compression discards information from the image which drastically reduces the file size. The problem comes when we need to re-save the file. Each time a lossy file is re-saved it’s recompressing, compression on compression, and each time, the quality of the image is reduced.

Lossless compression is akin to vacuum sealing a suitcase. Sucking out the air reduces the size for storage, but the air can be let back when it’s unpacked, and everything returns to normal.

Compression copy.jpg

The reason I’m talking about this is because I do both. I’ll save a full resolution version of my image as a TIFF (Lossless). I’ll then reduce the image size (File > Image Size) to 1080 pixels on the longest side and re-save it as a JPEG (Lossy). If I need to create a second version of the image for Instagram (5:4 or 1:1) I’ll revert to the original image size, crop and scale as necessary then re-size to 1080 again and save as a second JPEG. All files will be saved at 300dpi using an RGB colour mode. 

I will never re-open either jpeg and re-save it. Any changes or copies I need to make will be done from the TIFF and then saved as another JPEG from it. 

Files types copy.jpg

The finishing touches.

300x0w.jpg

My TIFFS are saved on two separate hard-drives (usually) and backed up to the cloud. My JPEGS are saved on one hard drive.

I have two dedicated folders on my phone, IMAGE UPLOADS and IMAGE UPLOADS – IG. I’ll airdrop both JPEGS from my laptop to my phone (Airdrop = Apple, just, do it) and store them accordingly.

I’ll upload my jpegs to Facebook and Flickr separately, I don’t automate this, then upload to IG. I generate half my hashtags using an app called Focalmark and then take a punt on the other half. 

For anyone who has seen my IG stories, I use an app called LumaFusion which is an iOS video editing app and super capable. I’ve made a standard project template in it for IG stories and set to 1080 x 1920 resolution (the standard IG story size) at 30fps and saved as an MPEG4. I’ll then open the saved video file in a second app called HypeType to add the animated text, re-save and upload. 

Watermarking

Last but not least is this old chestnut. I’ve seen some heated debates on this topic and there isn’t a right or wrong approach, but I haven’t put a watermark on an image in two years now.

This all comes down to your objectives and use cases for social media. If you want your images to get shared and drive traffic back to you then don’t watermark them. They’ll still get shared, just a lot less and IMO watermarking just cheapens a classy shot.

I know many people will argue that they need to prevent theft and that’s fair enough, but I’d ask who you are afraid is going to steal your image? If a scoundrel is bold enough to pass off your image as their own, chances are they’re probably bold enough to remove your watermark as well. If you’re worried about the opportunity cost of someone downloading your image for commercial use, then I’d recommend making sure the version you publish online is no bigger than 1080pixels. Whilst this size looks good for social media, it’s rather ineffectual or inoperative for any other purpose.

Well that’s about it folks. I hope this has been helpful and please keep the questions coming. I don’t have an awful lot of time to churn out blogs, but I’ll make a better effort at keeping them a little more frequent.

Muchas gracias. 

Lume Cubes - My initial review

Haukland Aurora_Blog.jpg

A few years ago, I heard some whispers about a new company building a super portable and customisable little light called Lume Cube - quick here. I loved the idea and on paper they looked good so it’s been great to finally have some time with them.

I took a set of two x cubes and two x DJI Phantom 4 Brackets to Norway with the hope of getting some serious air time with them on my DJI Phantom 4 Pro in the arctic mountains but, alas, the weather wasn’t playing ball and some serious wind kept me grounded during some prime opportunities. None-the-less I managed to trial them out and have plenty of thoughts to share.

I’ve spent a lot of time with lights over the years and am pretty comfortable in saying I know my way around a good set of flashes and some pocket wizards so let’s begin there.

cubes.jpg

A flash alternative?

Creative lighting has always been an intimidating game. There’s a tonne of variables at play and knowing how to really optimise a set of flashes required a fair amount of photographic understanding. 1/250th curtain speeds, aperture ambience control v shutter speed, dialling up or down by stop ratios. Tripping wireless lights with triggers (like a pocket wizard) was never straight forward either.

The Cubes can be triggered as a slave from an external flash (identical to the standard speed light slave mode many would have used before). Their flash mode can also be controlled from within the app.

Compared with a high end and high price flash, the cubes are comparable in power (up to 1,500 lumens a piece) however the light temperature is just slightly too white for my liking and a little 'crisp' but it's absolutely manageable - especially for the price. 

If I were on assignment in the field I could easily get by with a set of these in the bag to use for any off camera lighting work that might come up. The Lume Cubes come real close to being a genuine alternative to flashes and so much easier.

The app

I’ll jump right to this now because, in my opinion, this is a game changer. The Lume Cube has two buttons for adjusting the mode of the light and the brightness without grabbing for your phone, the buttons are discreet but I had no problem using them even with thick winter gloves.

The majority of operation isn’t by these buttons but rather an app (ios and android). The level of control and customisation is huge and the ease of use is staggering (see ‘flash alternative’). Apparently 5 Lume Cubes can be controlled

 Stills and video can be shot directly from within the app. 

Stills and video can be shot directly from within the app. 

 All aspects of each cube can be controlled from within the app.

All aspects of each cube can be controlled from within the app.

 Mounting a set of Lume Cubes on the DJI Phantom 4 Pro is seriously cool.  Get it? ;)

Mounting a set of Lume Cubes on the DJI Phantom 4 Pro is seriously cool.

Get it? ;)

Airborne

A year or so ago I had the idea of putting some lights in the sky and rigged up a little make-shift mount on the bottom of my DJI M600 with 3 x Nikon SB910 speed lights + Pocket Wizards. The results were cool but it took work.

Fast forward and here’s the future. These lights are bright but what’s more, they’re small, light and seriously easy to mount. I used the DJI Phantom 4 mount which clipped into the landing gear easily and attached to the cubes via a standard ¼ thread.

 The Phantom 4 mounting bars are simple to attach and easy to manoeuvre directionally.

The Phantom 4 mounting bars are simple to attach and easy to manoeuvre directionally.

The first time I flew with the cubes I was using my iPhone as the flight controller and this was also the same device I had the Lume Cube controller app installed on which was a little inconvenient to flick between. From then onwards I used my iPad for the drone which kept my phone free to control the lights – easy.

The DJI Phantom 4 Pro didn’t seem to labour with the added payload, I did notice it’s pitch was slightly exaggerated with the extra weight to momentum but overall it accommodated for them very easily. The flight time would unquestionably be impacted with the added payload but given I was already flying in sub-zero temperatures I wasn't able to isolate the payload variable for comparative measurements. 

As of writing my Phantom is in the shop for some signal issues (unrelated) but the creative opportunities here are really endless and I’ve got some terrific ideas to come.

 

My initial thoughts - the good 

I wish I had more time in the air whilst in Norway but my initial impressions have been very positive.

  • Compact, light, waterproof and super durable.
  • Bright. 0-1,500 lumens
  • Standard mount for attaching to almost anything
  • Very fast recycle time between flashes
  • Optical sensor for triggering
  • Inbuilt, rechargeable battery with USB recharging port – I was charging these in them car.
  • The app – seriously cool
  • Easy to use

 

The not so good:

Cube Aurora_small.jpg
  • The colour temp on these is rated at 5600K but the light seemed cool and very white.
  • Battery life is acceptable but unlike mainstream flashes, you can’t simply switch out batteries when one is done.

As you can see, the good definitely outweighs the not so good and with logical application across both video and stills as well as in the air and under the water, these lights have some serious possibilities.

If you’re interested in purchasing a Lume Cube please use this link here to click through – it’ll help support this blog and be much appreciated!

Update

Since publishing this review the good folks at LumeCube have told me about the their Light House product. Lighthouse is a modular light modifying system for the Lume Cubes and was bought out to directly address the light balancing issue I mentioned above. 

I haven't tested the Lighthouse kit but I do give kudos to LC for listening to their customers - this is a refreshing change. 

Here's a link to the lighthouse kit

Filters on drones?

Are drone filters worth it for photography?

I often see a lot of people asking “what filters did you use?” and also spending money to buy them. Therefore to help clear up any confusion, set the right expectations and hopefully save some peeps a few bucks here’s a quick little brain dump on filters. It might be of some help to those who may be new to photography. 

I tend to think of filters in two groups. Optically altering and non-optically altering. Filters such as UV and polarising filters literally change or modify the light. ND and Grad ND Filters do not modify the light. 

 A standard screw in UV lens filter

A standard screw in UV lens filter

 Just part of my personal Lee Filters landscape  kit.

Just part of my personal Lee Filters landscape  kit.

Whilst there’s literally hundreds of filter variants not all of them are applicable to aerial photography so I’ll explain the four different types of filters I often see people ask about or buy for drones. 

1. UV. A UV filter was traditionally used to block UV rays from the film. Digital camera sensors have an IR or UV filter built in making UV filters completely redundant for this purpose. Many still like using a UV filter to protect the lens of their camera from scratches. Personally, I’ve never used a UV / clear filter for protection.

I’ve never scratched a lens and the lens of a drone camera would be even harder to scratch (given they’re used in the air). I’ve seen a lot of people buy UV / Clear filters for their drones and IMO this is of no benefit and in-fact will degrade image quality. 

2. Polarising filters. Of all the filters available for drones, a polarising filter is the single filter I agree has the most value for photography. The type of polariser filter used is a circular polariser (circ.pol) 

These could be seen to benefit aerial photography in a number of ways. They remove reflected light waves, reducing glare and helping improve clarity in things such as water and clouds. They can also help improve the natural saturation of colours. 

There are a lot of people who swear by polarises but IMO they’re not worth it for aerial photography. Here’s why:
-They work when they are perpendicular to the direction of the sun. This is controlled by manually rotating the filter which obviously one cannot do when their lens is in the air. 
-The guessing game of ‘putting her on and sending her up’ can impair the image with uneven areas of polar reduction. 
-Photographers compose their shots to ensure uniformed saturation with polarises. Again, this isn’t possible when the lens is in the sky. 
-Polarises reduce approx. 2 exposure stops of light which has subsequent impacts when your camera is airborne (I’ll get to this below). 

So – I agree, circ.pol filters can absolutely have an impact on the photo. IMO, the results aren’t worth it and with the above limitations in mind, are probably better achieved in post-production. This is a personal preference though 🙂

3. Neutral Density (ND) filters. I think ND filters are one of the more misunderstood filters in the drone community. ND filters are optically neutral, meaning, they don’t change the light like polarises or UV filters do. ND filters are literally just darkened glass (perspex, plastic etc). Landscape photographers will have many times when they need to reduce the amount of light entering their lens. This comes down to the basic principles of exposure. Ie. Exposure is a product of three variables. Shutter speed, aperture and ISO (film sensitivity). 

If a photographer wishes to reduce their shutter speed they are then allowing more light into their lens, this is compensated by closing the aperture. For example. 1/1000th of a second and f2 is the same exposure as 1/500th second and f2.8 and the same exposure as 1/250th second and f4 and so on. All variables work in sync. So if a photographer needs their shutter speed to be slow (ie 1/8th second) they need to compensate this with their aperture. In the above example 1/8th sec would be an aperture of f22). 

This isn’t always achievable or ideal, so, enter ND filters. 

IMO, this isn’t valuable in drone photography because the only value of slowing the shutter speed would be for long exposures (to blur water for example) which requires a tripod. Some might say their gimbals are magic and can allow for this, and whilst it’s a fun novelty, the image won’t be sharp or useable for anything other than phone size screens.

So why do ND filters serve no other purpose? Some drone camera’s such as the P4P and Inspire camera’s allow for aperture control. Even on drones without aperture control and fixed at f2.8, if you need to reduce the exposure you can simply dial up the shutter speed. 

(I'll pause here to make it clear I'm talking to photography and not videography. I absolutely agree some videographers will want ND filters for many other reasons). 

4. Grad ND. Grad ND’s are filters which gradually change from clear to a darker number of exposure stops. These are invaluable for landscape photographers when they want to balance their foreground light with the higher exposure of the sky. 

Could you do that on a drone when airborne? I guess maybe. Would I spend money on a filter for it for my drone. Nope. I’d take two exposures and blend them. It’d be easier than trying to balance the horizon along the grad line in the air.

Shooting the northern lights

 Svolvear Aurora - Sony A7R2, 15mm Laowa f2, ISO 640, 8seconds

Svolvear Aurora - Sony A7R2, 15mm Laowa f2, ISO 640, 8seconds

I’ve had a few messages recently asking for tips or advice on photographing the northern lights and thought this would make for a helpful blog.

I’ve had a lot of experience photographing the milky way and wrongly assumed it’d be a lift and shift for photographing the aurora so let’s begin there.

 

Milky Way

Exposure length.

When photographing the milky way, we need to keep our exposure length controlled to avoid star trailing (ie 30” @ 15mm, 25” @20mm etc). Star trailing isn’t a concern for the aurora but exposure length is. I’ll explain below.

Aperture and ISO

The Milky way is usually dark and I find that an ISO from 1600 – 3200 is usually needed at a wide aperture of say f2.8.

 

Aurora

The need for speed

The speed and adaptiveness needed for the aurora really caught me off guard. The aurora can change in an instant from a subtle green glow to giant super bright curtains dancing through the sky. I was shooting with the new Laowa 15mm f2 and chose the widest aperture to keep my ISO low.

Things began at f2, ISO 1600 and 30” but as the intensity of the aurora lifted I found my exposures were actually blowing out (crazy to think that could happen at night). At one point, I was at f2, ISO 200 (yes 200) and 20”.

 When the Aurora is peaking and moving in curtains, 30 seconds will blend and blur the definition and form. 

When the Aurora is peaking and moving in curtains, 30 seconds will blend and blur the definition and form. 

Later that night I got the files onto the computer and realised my errors. Because I had ruled out the concern of star trailing I figured I could hold onto a longer shutter speed (30”) to keep my ISO nice and low. Unfortunately, when the aurora was at its best was when it was dancing through the sky and 20” – 30” was just too long to capture the form and shape of the curtains. Everything just blended in.

The next night started off much the same. A dim green glow which, in an instant would change to bright green curtains. This time, I kept my aperture at f2 but would roll between ISO 640 and ISO 800 to keep my exposure length at just a few seconds. This returned a far better shot with much more definition and form to the amazing shapes of the aurora.

 

White Balance

Of-course this can all be changed in post but I do like to get an accurate idea of how things are looking in the field. I found a temperature of 2900k – 3200k worked really nicely. 

Foregrounds

In a few shots I found my foregrounds were out of focus or soft due to my wide aperture (f2). In these instances (and when time permitted) I would shoot a longer 3 - 5 minute exposure at around f5 and blend with the sky in post production. 

 

Post Production

Raw conversion

Given the magnificence of the aurora is already so impressive I didn’t need to work on the shots in post much to get them to a point I was happy with. None-the-less I did play around a little and here’s a basic work flow that I found fairly effective.

I process my RAWS in ACR but this will be the same for those working in Lightroom or another similar raw converter. 

 

   
  
   
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    Pull the highlights down a little to control the hot points

Pull the highlights down a little to control the hot points

 Add about 10 points of contrast.

Add about 10 points of contrast.

   
  
   
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   X-NONE 
   
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
   
   
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
  
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
  
   
 
 /* Style Definitions */
table.MsoNormalTable
	{mso-style-name:"Table Normal";
	mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0;
	mso-tstyle-colband-size:0;
	mso-style-noshow:yes;
	mso-style-priority:99;
	mso-style-parent:"";
	mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;
	mso-para-margin:0cm;
	mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt;
	mso-pagination:widow-orphan;
	font-size:12.0pt;
	font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;
	mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;
	mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
	mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;
	mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;
	mso-fareast-language:EN-US;}
 
    Boost the whites between around 35 – 55 points.

Boost the whites between around 35 – 55 points.

   
  
   
   96 
  
    
  
   Normal 
   0 
   
   
   
   
   false 
   false 
   false 
   
   EN-GB 
   X-NONE 
   X-NONE 
   
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
   
   
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
  
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
  
   
 
 /* Style Definitions */
table.MsoNormalTable
	{mso-style-name:"Table Normal";
	mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0;
	mso-tstyle-colband-size:0;
	mso-style-noshow:yes;
	mso-style-priority:99;
	mso-style-parent:"";
	mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;
	mso-para-margin:0cm;
	mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt;
	mso-pagination:widow-orphan;
	font-size:12.0pt;
	font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;
	mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;
	mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
	mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;
	mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;
	mso-fareast-language:EN-US;}
 
    Add additional clarity (12 – 20).